The initiative of guiding the process was initially taken by the Czech Republic, supported by Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Following the Senior Officials’ Meeting in December 2010 such an initiative has been taken by Poland.

As of 2016, the following 50 states are participants of the Prague Process: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kosovo*, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and Uzbekistan.

The Republic of Belarus became part of the Process in December 2010.