The Czech Republic is a country of immigration, emigration and transit; however, in-migration is two to three times larger than out-migration. As of 2014, positive net migration represents a primary component of population growth. In 2022, the population of the Czech Republic amounted to over 10.5 million persons, slightly declining from the peak of 10.7 million recorded in 2020.
France, one of the main migration destinations, has a two-century history of immigration due to the industrial and political revolutions. The country is projected to remain an attractive destination based on the Gallup potential net migration index. On 1 January 2022, France had a population of 67.8 million inhabitants. The net migration of 155.000 people contribute to nearly two-thirds of the population increase, which amounts to around 0.25% per year.
Italy is a long-standing country of emigration, while immigration has become a demographically significant phenomenon only in the early years of the 21st century. In 2006, the share of the foreign population in Italy exceeded 5%. Since then, the growth has slowed down, and the number of resident foreigners has remained virtually unchanged since 2013.
Located in the heart of Europe, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has the highest foreigner rate in the EU amounting to 47.4% in 2020. With the development of the steel industry, the proportion of foreigners in Luxembourg has increased steadily over the past 100 years, and immigration has been surpassing emigration at least since 1990.
Historically an emigration country, Portugal has become an important country of destination for international migrants, whose number has grown considerably in the past decade. The rising immigration offsets the population decline, which amounted to 2.1% over the past decade.
The Republic of Slovakia used to be one of the countries of emigration but started attracting more foreigners since joining the EU and the Schengen area. In 2022, the population of the country amounted to 5.431.306 persons. Since 2011, the population has been slowly growing, but has started to decline since the pandemic. Over the past 5 years, the migration balance has been slightly positive.