General Information


5.758.075 (World Bank 2017)


195.061 (UN Immigration Stock 2017)


243.202 (UN Emigration Stock 2017)

Working-age population

3.731.871 (World Bank 2017)

Unemployment rate

3.8% (ILO 2018)

3.8% (World Bank 2018)


37.926 bn, current prices USD (World Bank 2017)

Refugees and IDPs


23 (UN Refugee Stock 2017)

Asylum Seekers:


By Birth: No

By Descent: Yes

Dual Citizenship: No

Years of Residency: 5





488.100 km² (CIA World Factbook)

Migration Authorities

Responsible Ministry

State Migration Service


Responsible Minister

Mergen Gurdov

Line Ministries


  • Border Guard Authority
  • General Prosecutor’s Office 


Migratory movements and the labour migration are under the government control. The main countries of destination are Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Iran. According to the official data of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service, the number of migrants from Turkmenistan increased from 5,986 persons in 2013 to 6,033 in 2014. The main flow of labour migration is directed towards the oil- and gas-producing West Siberian regions of the Russian Federation, such as Tyumen Region and Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts, and the majority of labour migrants from Turkmenistan are employed in oil and gas industry. According to the expert estimates, remittances from abroad exceed 35% of the national GDP.

Recent key legal instruments pertaining to migration: 

  • 2011 Law "On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in Turkmenistan"
  • 2012 Law "On migration"

The State Migration Service of Turkmenistan is responsible for the regulation of the migration system of Turkmenistan and the implementation of the state policy in the field of migration.