General Information


5.8 million (Eurostat 2017)

5.6 million (World Bank 2017)

National statistics of Turkmenistan – over 7,5 million persons


195.061 (UN DESA 2017)


243.202 (UN DESA 2017)

Working-age population

3.8 million (UN DESA 2018)

67 % of the population (World Bank: 2014)

Unemployment rate

2.7% (ILO 2018)

10,5% of the population (World Bank:2014)


42.3 billion (World Bank 2017)

42.4 billion (CIS Stat 2018)

GDP per capita 6,225.5 EUR

Refugees and IDPs

Refugees: 22 (UNHCR Mid-Year 2017)

358 Asylum Seekers  (Eurostat 2017)

NMR: -0.86 (UN Data 2015-2020)







488.100 km² (CIA World Factbook)

Migration Authorities

Responsible Ministry

State Migration Service


Responsible Minister

Mergen Gurdov

Line Ministries


  • Border Guard Authority
  • General Prosecutor’s Office 


Migratory movements and the labour migration are under the government control. The main countries of destination are Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Iran. According to the official data of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service, the number of migrants from Turkmenistan increased from 5,986 persons in 2013 to 6,033 in 2014. The main flow of labour migration is directed towards the oil- and gas-producing West Siberian regions of the Russian Federation, such as Tyumen Region and Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts, and the majority of labour migrants from Turkmenistan are employed in oil and gas industry. According to the expert estimates, remittances from abroad exceed 35% of the national GDP.

Recent key legal instruments pertaining to migration: 

  • 2011 Law "On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in Turkmenistan"
  • 2012 Law "On migration"

The State Migration Service of Turkmenistan is responsible for the regulation of the migration system of Turkmenistan and the implementation of the state policy in the field of migration.