Russian Federation

General Information


144.4 million (Eurostat 2017)

146.8 million (FSSS 2018)



11.651.509 (UN DESA 2017)


10.635.994 (UN DESA 2017)

Working-age population

98.5 million (World Bank 2017)

75.8 million (FSSS 2018)


Unemployment rate

4.4% (ILO 2018)

5.2%  (FSSS 2018)



1.6 trillion (World Bank 2017)

92 trillion (FSSS 2017)

GDP per capita 9,729.7 EUR 

Refugees and IDPs

Refugees: 188.374 (UNHCR Mid-Year 2017)

Asylum seekers: 3.420 (UNHCR Mid-Year 2017)

IDPs: 19.000 (IDMC 2017)       






The main countries of destination for the majority of migrants are the USA, Germany and Israel. According to the official data of Federal State Statistics Service, the number of immigrants totalled 4,624,864 persons; the number of emigrants totalled 4,354,828 persons in 2014. The balance of net migration amounted to 270,036 persons in 2014. Russia is the largest country of destination for labour migrants from the CIS region. In 2014, the largest group of labour migrants was represented by the citizens of Uzbekistan and Ukraine.

The key policy instruments pertaining to migration are: 

  • 2007 Concept of National Demographic Policy of Russia till 2025 
  • 2012 Concept of National Migration Policy of Russia till 2025 
  • 2015 Law "On Migration Registration of Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons in the Russian Federation"
  • 2015 Law „On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation"
  • 2016 Law "On the Procedure for Exit from the Russian Federation and Entry into the Russian Federation"

The Federal Migration Service of Russia represents the main coordinating authority on migration policy.  Among its functions are the reception, allocation, and settlement of migrants.